Archive for Abstract project

EFFICIENT CORPORATE IMAGE MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING PROFITABILITY

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(A CASE STUDY OF PHINOMAR NIG. LTD) 5000 naira for complete material.
ABSTRACT
Business organization in Nigeria have failed to realize the role a good corporate image policy has in business dealings. This is probably because they do not understand the concept of corporate image and necessary toold for promoting them. Corporate image, in fact goes beyond attractive products or reminding quality service, advertising paying good salary and so on. It pervades every aspect of a business concern from the least workers personality to the dialing within the organization and with larger society.
In the fact of the dynamics of our society, especially in the business world, brought about by technology, companies are faced with stiff competition that maintaining a competitive edge requires aggressive strategies. One of such strategies is efficient corporate image management and promotion.
The focus on this research work was to determine the strategies that could be employed to build and promote corporate image efficiently and enhance profit margins of an organization. A case study of Phinomar Nigeria Limited, Ngwo was therefore undertaken.
The finding revealed that:
a. Phinomar Nigeria Limited has a lay down corporate image policy though not effectively managed.
b. Strategies employed to promote corporate image are limited.
c. Response to Phinomar products is fairly high, hence it can be said to be profitable.
d. Employee welfare and work environment need improvement.
e. Phinomar needs to increase the scope of its social responsibility.
f. Phinomar need a well managed corporate image which should be reviewed periodically for improvement.
g. Customers’ response to Phinomar product is high.
h. Communication among workers in Phinomar Nigeria Limited is not adequate.
i. Phinomar Nigeria Limited lays emphasis on public relations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - -
1.2 Statement of the study - - - - - -
1.3 Purpose of the study - - - - - -
1.4 Scope of the study - - - - - - -
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - -
1.6 Limitations of the study - - - - - -
1.7 Research question - - - - - - -
1.8 Research hypothesis - - - - - -
1.9 Definition of terms - - - - - - -
Reference - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Meaning and history of corporate image management -
2.2 Different views and opinions about corporate image management
and organization profitability - - - - -
2.3 Different approach to corporate image management -
2.4 Corporate image management at Phinomar Nigeria ltd -
References - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design - - - - - - -
3.2 Area of the study - - - - - - -
3.3 Population of the study - - - - - -
3.4 Sample and sampling procedures / techniques - -
3.5 Instrument for data collection - - - - -
3.6 Validation of the instrument - - - - -
3.7 Reliability of the instrument - - - - -
3.8 Methods of data collection - - - - -
3.9 Methods of data analysis - - - - - -
Reference - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATINO AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation and analysis of data - - - -
4.2 Testing of hypothesis - - - - - -
4.3 Summary of results - - - - - -

CHAPTER FIVE – DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Discussion of result findings - - - - -
5.2 Conclusions - - - - - - -
5.3 Implication of the research findings - - - -
5.4 Recommendations - - - - - - -
5.5 Suggestions for further research - - - -
BIBLIOGRAPHY - - - - - - - -
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II

LIST OF TABLES

4.1 Whether importance is attached to corporate image - -
4.2 Contribution of image to the organisational profitability -
4.3 Method used in maintaining goods corporate image -
4.4 Whether there are departments responsible for creation of image
4.5 Measures used in customers satisfaction - - -
4.6 Observed frequency - - - - - -
4.7 Observed and expected frequency - - - -
4.8 Observed frequency - - - - - -
4.9 Observed and expected frequency - - - -
4.10 Observed frequency - - - - - -
4.11 Observed and expected frequency - - - -

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A company’s product as such is no longer the chief media projecting its image. Count more today is the public posture of management, its concern for consumer welfare and its visible response to imperative social and economic needs. In short, management must concern itself as much with protection as it does with profit (Harold H. Margins: 1970).
Every aspect of business and industry is undergoing rapid change in terms of philosophy and technology and there is more rapidly changing function of corporate management to public attitudes and reaction. In the same vein, the corporate image of any organisation has to be steer to change to correspond in response to the demands of its ever changing business public, marketing them aggressively, paying fair wages to the employees, and even paying taxes, etc. is not just enough to maintain to competitive edge. There is now economic and social responsibility that faces every business.
Perhaps it would be necessary to ask; is there any need to engage in corporate image promotion? Does promotion have effect on the returns of an organisation? Are there right and wrong ways to project a corporate image? What is the place of employee motivation, communication, customer relations, social responsibility etc. in the whole role of image promotion programme?
Margins, H. Harold (1979.7) stated, “Mass merchandising, new method of advertising, increased competition, and government regulation have brought corporate reputations into public view and cause executive to seek more favourable reactions”. However, many hard headed business men do have an uneasy feeling that promoting the corporate image is little more than a perceived gesture of public good will. The critical importance of corporate image becomes apparent when consumers protest provokes, from large organization series of explanations and apologies for the faults they are accused companies must therefore give to finance. Marketing and research in the table of rapid, social and technological change. Other wise, it cannot expect the command public respect and support in the market place.
To live and grow, the command respect and regard, the corporate image must be more than a product of public relations. Therefore, corporate image promotion should not be left in the hands of the public relations men, but should be the responsibility of top management and every member of staff. This implies that the image programme should be part of the over all planning for the company’s future. No matter how impressive a firm’s achievements are, they must be properly presented in the public, for them to be acknowledged. Thus corporate planning is an integral part of policy decisions. For some companies, image programmes is part of board planning for greater sales and profits. This is one of the fundamental objectives of management and all its activities will be programmed to that end.
Staged that, “It is not an exaggeration to say that a good image is fundamental to the existence of any business enterprise. The concept of image is often considered to be an important determination of long term sales and profits. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider the use of image as an objective not only for an advertising programme but for marketing programme and an organization as a whole”. When a new product is introduced in the market, a respected corporate name often benefits from the unknown product. People are more likely to buy a new product if they know and like its manufacturer. Furthermore, the quality image of a company’s product may have considerable influence on the kind of new product the company can market successfully. They identified four types of resources available to companies, system resources and intangible resources.
Explaining the intangibles, Scholes and Klem observed that “many organization have significant strength in intangible assets such as, image or brand name. The value of intangible resources should not be under rated. Infact, in many service companies, these intangible can be the key asset of the company. Potential purchase of money for this “goodwill” underlying their real value. Finally, order to gain the support of its publics, the corporate image must show that management is progressing, mobile, open to innovation, fair to all and free of dogma and convention. Creating and promoting corporate personality efficiently is mainly communicating company’s objectives, beliefs, reputation and achievements to its public in order to gain their goodwill.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
Adequate emphasis have not been laid by firms in terms of promoting a favourable corporate image and this attitude has affected their performance in the market. More so, in the face of the prevailing stiff competition among firms.
The environment in which business operate is in constant change and it constitutes an important factor in that, it affects management decisions and actions. For any business, two types of environment exist. The operating environment, which may be classified with comprises economic, social, political cultural, government, technological, while internal forces comprises the top management employee, task forces and public environment which is made up of the firms several public.
For an organization to remain in business, it has to help to shape its environment because of the rapid change that the organisation’s operating environment undergoes.
Apart from the influence of the environment, the image of the firm is another factor that requires consideration. The type of image, which an organization projects is an important determinant of its long run existence and performance. There are strategies that have to be developed and adapted creatively to achieve organizational goals. From management’s point of view. Without a good image, an organization is not guaranteed of long life, the profit objective of the organization will not be achieved, the market share will be affected resulting to decreased sales volume, there will be employee dissatisfaction; co-ordination of work will be un-impressible and there by the organization will collapse.
The correction of the above management problems requires the application of the management’s functions of planning which involves selecting objectives and formulating strategies, policies programmes and procedures to achieve organization goals.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Owing to the fact that every aspect of business is undergoing accelerating change, and no function of management is changing more rapidly than public attitude and reactions, the corporate image itself should be constantly and efficiently promoted.
Most times, the consumers cannot differentiate between similar products manufactured by different companies. But the quality of one’s company’s image may suppress other brand in the market to make it distinctively different and much more desirable. For company to stay in business and command respect and regard, its corporate image must be more than a product of public relations. It must be an accurate practice and an accurate picture of what the company is and what it does. The corporate image of an organization must show that the management is progressive, innovative and fair to all their public customers.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the problems of building and efficiently projecting favourable image of all organizations, but with particular reference to Phinomar Nigeria Limited Ngwo sequel to the above, the following objectives have been carefully deliveated by the researcher for achievement.
i. To find out if Phinomar Nigeria Limited attaches importance to corporate image promotion.
ii. To identify the strategies they adopt to promote corporate image.
iii. To ascertain if the company has department responsible for creating image for the company.
iv. To determine to what extent has the image of the company contributed to the profitability of the firm.
v. To find out the method used in maintaining good corporate image.
The survey would sample the views and opinions of both management and employees of company on the above – mentioned problems and with information gathered. Suggest solutions to the problems, which would lead to efficient corporate image promotion in Phinomar.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

AN EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL IN THE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

AN EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL IN THE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (A CASE STUDY OF OANDO PLC ENUGU) 5000 naira or $30 for complete material.
ABSTRACT
This research was motivated to appraise the evaluation of distribution channel in the logistics management of petroleum product using Oando plc as the case study. There was a problem of the tendency of distribution of those petroleum products to the Northern & Southern which effect to a scarcity of the product in other areas of the country. On the contrary to the problems of this research work, an objective came to be as to ascertain whether there is an effective and efficient distribution of petroleum products, all round the country. In the process of solving and pursuance on the problems and the objectives, both primary and secondary data were sourced. The targeted respondents were mainly the managers, staffs and customers were statistically determined for the purpose of both questionnaires administration and personal interview. In organizing and presentation of data collected, tables and percentages were used and various hypothesis were tested using chi-square. The tests of the hypothesis made the researcher to concluded that Oando plc cannot improve on the distribution channel in the logistics management of petroleum product in our country, as the critical value was greater than the expected value on both tests.
5-99 > 1.2481 & 1.8838 < 5.99
The study reviews some finds which made the researcher to recommended that government should set some security agencies that can militate against perpetrator that vandalize the pipeline and other unscrupulous person (s) that engaged in similar act he believes if carefully implemented will go a long way to shortening the various problems
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statements of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Formulation of hypothesis
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of basic terms
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of channel system
2.2 Management of logistics/channel system
2.3 Conflict in channel management
2.4 Co-operation by channel participants
2.5 Channels of distribution in petroleum products
2.6 Factors affecting petroleum products
2.7 Managing marketing channels of petroleum products
2.8 The benefits of using efficient channel

System as a Means of Distributing Petroleum Products
References

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Population of the study and sample size
3.4 Instrument used
3.5 Validity of the instrument
3.6 Reliability of the instrument
3.7 Method of data collection
3.8 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA.
4.1 Summary of the results and findings
4.2 Testing of hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Discussion of the result
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation, suggestion for further research bibliography
Appendices
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION:
This chapter consists of details of the topic under research. Here the background of the study statement of the problem, objectives and significance of the study will be revealed along with research question so as to enable the researcher know what the research work is all about.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As a result of petroleum products being the major exporting product among others, of our country. Our country solely depends on it as the highest percentage revenue on the overall percentage of the total exportation products or items.
In the 1979s after the civil war, Nigerians have Agricultural products as the dependent product in both domestic and international uses. But today due to greater lucrative of this product all over the world, abandoned the former for the latter.
As the uses is universal, the extractive regions which are at South east and South west encountered a difficult impact to be supplied or distribute to various areas of other regions of the country, due to mainly mismanagement and other opposing factors. The transportation of this extracting products from the originated area to the refinery was a great problem in the country, because of its form bulky and channel of distribution.
The government then employed foreign bodies to refine this product in order to reach to the hook and of the country. The refinery built and managed by government admitted a foreign firm to have a part in the refinery for the bases of their services as regards to importation. Still not adequate as the dealers divert this product to their own perspective regions where they expect to dispose it in a high value. At times, this petroleum products i.e. fuel, kerosene, diesel, bitumen to mention but few do change totally the generic colour used to it to another unpredicted colour thereby caused a harm to human body. These dealers were formerly the staffs of one firm and another for years, left their various perspective offices for the marketing of these products thereby formed one organization and another to impose the prices on this products.
The region that is basically not interested in the use of this product by their majority because of their belief or customs has low cost and optimal quantities than other regions.

From the facts, it becomes clear that if the left cream of the nation is to be feasible accordingly, a great percentage or rate of the standard of living would have been a something if smile to the populace.

HISTORY AND BUSINESS OF THE COMPANY (OANDO)
The company commenced business operations as a petroleum marketing company in Nigeria in 1956 under the name of “ESSO West Africa Incorporated” a subsidiary of Exxon Corporation of the United States of America. In 1969, the company was incorporated as ESSO Standard Nigeria Limited, and in 1976, the Nigerian Government acquired all of ESSO’ s shareholding interest, thereby fully indigemising the company whose name was subsequently changed to Unipetrol Nigeria Limited. It became a public limited liability company in 1991, when the federal government divested 60% of its shareholding to the general public, and was quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in February 1992. In 2000, the Federal Government divested its remaining 40% shareholding in the company, 30% of which was acquired by ocean and oil investment limited whilst the balance of 10% was taking by the Nigerian Public.

In 2002, the company acquired Agip Petroli International BV’s 60% shareholding in Agip Nigeria Plc (Agip) and subsequently merged with Agip to become the second largest player in the downstream petroleum marketing industry. In December 2003, the company announced the launch of “Oando PLC” its new corporate identity to signify the creation of a proudly West Africa brand. The new corporate identify and branding exercise portrays the values and brand essence of the company service excellence, performance – driven, dynamic and progressive, consistent quality experience and proudly West African.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Petroleum products have a numerous problems on logistics management on its distribution, it is the only and major exporting product of our country, which is disposed in a high rate to another country thereby expect the citizening to do the same the tendency of distribution channel to the Northern and Southern regions of the country is much more sufficient than other regions, which causes scarcity of the product in these areas. Some quantities of these products are being diversified to other different stations for a tremendous income, impact on hoarding which reveals the control is not effective.

Many of the distribution channels are being vandalized by unscrupulous individuals in the area which stagnantly affects its distribution and transportation. Moreover, there is weights and measures on the quantities of this petroleum products making the dealers to have different prices of disposing this product in their various areas. Finally, the Boards that deals on the marketing of this petroleum products (NUPENG, PENGASIN, etc) do impose some requisitions from the federal government which may not come forth, affect its distributions.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are;

ELECTRONIC BANKING AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE NIGERIAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

ELECTRONIC BANKING AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE NIGERIAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC.) 5000 naira or $30 for complete material.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Business organization especially the banking industry of the 21st century
operates in a complex and competitive environment characterized by changing factors and highly unpredictable climate, thus, information and communication technology is at the centre of this global curve as an absorber and to provide a cooling effect. Also, Laudon D. and Laudon J. (1991) contend that banks cannot ignore information system because it plays a critical role in their competitive edge both locally and globally, they point out that most fortune banks’ cash flow is linked to their adoption of information system. The adoption of .Information and Communication Technology in banking sector is generally referred to as electronic banking (E-banking) and application of its concepts, techniques, policies, and implementation strategies to banking services has become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all banks and indeed a pre-requisite for local and global competitiveness because, it directly affects the management decisions, plan and products and services to be offered by banks. It has continued to change the way banks and the corporate relationships are organized worldwide and the variety of innovation of service delivery. Although a lot of research works has been done on the prospects and challenges of Information Technology in the banking industry, theses research works are broad based and only few are actually carried on Electronic Banking (E-banking). Modern banks now realise that only those that overhaul their payment service delivery and operations are likely to survive and prosper in the 21st century (Opara et al, 2010). This is due to pressure of globalisation, consolidation, privatisation, deregulation and rapidly changing technology (Connel and Saleh 2004). In order to properly place themselves in favourable positions for competitions and be one of those corporations to be reckoned with in the new century, banks are making use of Internet to execute mobile banking, this developed from bringing PCs together to form local and Wide Area Networks through client/server technology. Many banks have installed modern computer inter-connectivity backbone that would enable them achieve communications of data and multimedia over Internets, Intranets and Extranets. They also realise that they have to achieve not only management/staff wide computer literacy but what could be called information literacy i.e. knowing how to locate, analyse, store and use information. All staff and managers in a modern bank need to be able to search and gather data from several types of sources, analyse them, select relevant ones and organise them in such a manner to allow them make decisions based on the organised data.
Banks of the future realises that the banking of tomorrow requires more of electronic manipulations and shuffling of bits-based money and other banking transactions, instead of paper. In other words, paper based transactions are now being replaced by electronic-based transactions e.g. the Internet. Whether a bank would be successful or not depend on the extent to which it is investing in IT and using it in an innovative manner. This area has been tip to be a major competitive ground for banks that are operating in the post-consolidation era. What are the major issues needed to be mastered by Nigeria banks in order to compete with the rest of the world? What are the major developments and challenges in the Nigerian operating environment that are affecting the growth of electronic banking in the industry? These are some of the questions that would be addressed in the course of this study.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Electronic banking is a driving force that is changing the landscape of the banking industry fundamentally, in particular, towards a more competitive industry. Electronic banking has blurred the boundaries between different financial institutions, enabled new financial products and services, and made existing financial services available in different packages (Agbada, 2008). But the influences of electronic banking go far beyond this.
The developments in electronic banking, together with other financial innovations, are constantly bringing new challenges to finance theory and changing people’s understanding of the financial system. It is not surprising that in the application of electronic banking in Nigeria, the financial institutions have to face its problems. Communications over the Internet are insecure and often congested. The financial institutions would also have to contend with other Internet challenges including security, quality of service and some aberrations in electronic finance (Guardian Newspaper 2001). Besides, the existing business environment also poses some challenges to the smooth operations of electronic banking in Nigeria. Some of these operational challenges include epileptic power supply, dominance of cash transaction in the economy, low level of awareness among Nigerians etc (Agbada, 2008). The thrust of this research work shall be to examine the trend of electronic banking in Nigeria and a critically examination of the challenges noted above.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Some the objectives, which this research work aims to achieve are as follows:

ONION IS ASSOCIATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS WHICH ARE CAPABLE OF CAUSING SPOILAGE.

ABSTRACT. 3000 NAIRA FOR COMPLETE MATERIAL.

 

Onion is associated with micro-organisms which are capable of causing spoilage. Onions with rots were examined microscopically. A solution of it was made and the serial dilution of 1:10-1­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ to 1:1-5  were made from 10ml of the onions sample. From the dilution, 1ml of each diluent was plated on nutrient and saboor and  dextrose  agree to permit the grouth of the common bacterial and fungi, from the roffen onions. Duplicate plates were performed for each dilution. The plates was sivirled of gently to ensure even distribution of diluent and was incubated in inverted position  of 370 c for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the colorues  were counted, with vales yielding 30 to300 (to avoid TFTR and TNTC), the viable count per ml was defermined by multiplying the average number of colories of the duplicate plates by the corresponding factor (MPN table). Gram staining was carried out on the colories and examined microscopically. Representative colories were seperately sus-cultored on nutrient agar slopes for confirmatory characterization of the organism present Biochemical test for identification was also carried out. The result showed a mixed flora of bacterial and fungi including moulds as the organism responsible for spoilage of onions. The fungi isolated were  Mucor spp rhizopus spp, Aspergilus spp and saccharomycis spp. The bacteria isolated from the sample were staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus spp.

 

 

LIST OF TABLES                                                                          Pages

 

Table 2: Composition of Raw onion Components                        ————–12

Table 2: total plate counts                                                              —————25

Table 3: Isolate from onions Sample                                            —————26

Table 4: Identification of  Bacterial isolates From onoins sample   ————-28

Table 5: Biochemical test for identification of bacterial isolates      ————29

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                                                                                                                              1.1     Background          information

1.2     Aims of this research project

1.3     Statement of problems

1.4    Hypothesis

1.5   Significance of study

1.6   Limitation of this project

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     literature review

2.1 Introductions

2.2     Species of onions

2.3     Composition of raw onions

2.4     Dehydration of onions and uses of dehydrated onions

2.5            Basic principles involve in preventing microbial spoilage of onions

2.6            Spoilage of micro organisms

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and method

3.1     sample collection

3.2     materials used for the preparation of the medium

3.3     preparation of media

3.4     Preparation of sample

3.5     Microbial counts staining and microbiological work

3.5.1 Biochemical test for identification

3.5.2 Motility test

3.5.3 Sugar fermentation test

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0            Result  discussion

4.1            Result

4.2            Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    conclusion and recommendation

5.1   Conclusion

5.2  recommendation

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Onions is a vegetable crop and ancient in nature if is through to have been domesticated in the central Asia. It is one of the oldest vegetable cultivated by man for food. In the world onion buld are found in ancient Egypt, India, China and Europe during the middle ages, and in the late sixteenth or early seventeenths centuries, it spread to the new world by the Spaniards. The crop is now wide spread in both temperate and tropical regions with Europe as the largest producers (cobley and Steele, 1976).

In the tropic most onions are grown with irrigation during the relatively cool dry season in semi arid region, they are not good crop for hot wet tropic. Onions can be grown under a wide range of climatic condition but they succeed best in a mild climate without excessive rainfall or great extremes of heat and cold. They are not suitable to regions with heavy rainfall in the lowland humid tropics. Cool conditions with an adequate moisture supply are most suitable for early growth followed by warm drier condition for maturation, harvesting and curing. They can be grown on a variety of soils, but the soil should be retentive of water, non – packing and rich in nutrient, a good fertile loam usually gives the best result. They may be grown successfully on peat soils. The soil optimum pH is about 6.0 – 7.0 (alkaline) (carl and Hall, 1986).

In storage a specific environment must be provided for the onions, if a high quality product is to result. Storage losses are a function of storage environment as well as the condition and cultural practices used during the growing season. Proper control of storage environment can however, significantly extend the storage season from that which would result from storage environment that were not matched to the condition of the onions when placed in storage (carl & Hall, 1986).

Onions may be stored in bulk or may be placed in palletised bins that are stacked in a storage structure. The use of bins may make handling of onions convenient but it does make ventilation of the onions more difficult. Improved bins design may alleviate the ventilation problems in future (cobley and Steele, 1976).

Onions are packed locally by using basket and jute bags these packaging material come locally from palm; bamboo and fibrous jute trees, also they have different sorts and sizes. These packaging materials have the function for transportation and storability of the onions. Again these packaging material are locally available and relatively cheap. Apart from these few advantages mentioned they have no barrier to dust, not suitable for measuring weight and can easily be crushed which might lead to damage of the onions.

The deterioration of raw onions may result from physical factors; actions of their own enzymes, microbial or combination of these factors. Mechanical damage resulting from action of animals, birds or insects or from brushing, wounding, bursting, cutting, freezing, desiccation or other mishandling may predispose towards increased enzymatic action or entrance, and growth of microorganisms. Also previous damage by plant pathogens may make the part of the crop used as food unfit for consumption or may open the way for growth of saprophytes and spoilage by them. Contact with spoilage onions may bring about transfer of organisms causing spoilage and increasing the wastage. Improper environment condition during harvest, transit, storage and marketing may favor spoilage.

Genera of bacteria usually present in onion include pseudomonas spp, Bacillus spp, chromobacterium, Enterobacterium, flavobacterium, lactobacillus serratia, staphylococcus spp, streptococcus spp and others and perhaps genera containing plant pathogens, such as Erwinia and  xanthomomes. Grouwth  of some micro-organisms may take place between harvesting and processing or consumption of the vegetable. Adequate control of temperature and humidity will reduce such growth  (frazier and westhoff, 1978).

1.2       AIMS OF THIS RESEARCH PROJECT

The aims of this research project are:

1              to isolate, identify and characterize the different micro-organaniszs that are responsible for the spoilage of onions.

2              To categorize the pathogenic micro-organisms associated with the spoilage of onions.

Computerized crime information management system

(A case study of ebonyi state police command) price 3000 naira

ABSTRACT

This project work identifies the challenges facing police departments that seek to implement computerized crime tracking information systems. The project highlights the importance of police departments identifying crime records and then designing systems that accomplish the tasks specific to the needs of their end-users. Data transfer, data integration, system customization, and confidentiality issues are discussed. One of the most significant shortcomings in the delivery of justice is the delay that is encountered by court users which increases the cost of litigation in both time and money, and results in pro-longed criminal trials and over-crowded prisons.  Hence the new system designed will aid police in tracking crime records and thereby facilitate timely delivery of judgment by the court.

The software was implemented using Visual basic 6.0 and Access database.

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of The Study

The traditional and age-old system of intelligence and criminal record maintenance has failed to live up to the requirements of the existing crime scenario. Manual processes neither provide accurate, reliable and comprehensive data round the clock nor does it help in trend prediction and decision support. It also results in lower productivity and ineffective utilization of manpower. The solution to this ever-increasing problem lies in the effective use of Information Technology. Crime Tracking Information System uses computer to generated records as an interface for integrating and accessing massive amounts of location-based information.

Crime tracking system allows police personnel to plan effectively for emergency response, determine mitigation priorities, analyze historical events, and predict future events. Crime tracking system helps identify potential suspects to increase investigators suspect base when no leads are evident. The ability to access and process information quickly while displaying it in a spatial and visual medium allows agencies to allocate resources quickly and more effectively. In the ‘mission-critical’ nature of law enforcement, information about the location of a crime, incident, suspect, or victim is often crucial to determine the manner and size of the response. Crime tracking software helps co-ordinate vast amounts of location-based data from multiple sources. It enables the user to layer the data and view the data most critical to the particular issue or mission.

It is used world over by police departments, both large and small, to provide solutions for crime analysis, criminal tracking, traffic safety, community policing, Intranet/Internet mapping, and numerous other tasks.

Crime tracking system helps crime officers determine potential crime sites by examining complex seemingly unrelated criteria and displaying them all in an interface. It also helps them map inmate populations, fixtures, and equipment to provide for the safety of inmates by separating gang members, identifying high-risk or potentially violent inmates, and identifying hazardous locations in an area. It reduces the potential for internal violence by providing better command and control. Traditionally, these activities have been supported by paper and pen. Police officers now have the ability to immediately generate crime report directly relevant to the situation at hand. Police agencies collect vast amounts of data from many sources including called-for-services, arrests, first information reports and daily report. The same information provides a powerful decision making tool for investigators, supervisors, and administrators.

 

1.2     Statement of Problem

The lack of reliable central case recording systems for Nigerian police meant that cases were in effect impossible to trace without considerable resources, effort and a lot of luck. For criminal cases the impact of this has been felt in the practice of ‘holding charge’, where people are arrested and charged with capital offences in order to ensure their continued detention, whilst there is little or no evidence of their involvement. This issue has contributed significantly to the visible inefficiency of the Criminal Justice System, particularly the congestion of the prisons and the courts.

To improve the flow of cases and achieve speedier administration of justice, the introduction and deployment of IT based case management and tracking systems is needed.

 

Computerized online voting system

SELLING PRICE 5000 NAIRA
Abstract
Voter registration is the requirement in some democracies for citizens and residents to check in with some central registry specifically for the purpose of being allowed to vote in elections. It is a system and a method for facilitating an election. A database containing voter registration information is downloaded from a central computer to a portable computer that is accessible at a polling station. The database can be searched by a proctor or official at the polling station to determine whether a prospective voter is eligible to vote at the polling station. The name or name and date of birth of the prospective voter is entered into a search field of the portable computer and the database is searched. If and when a matching record is found, additional information is displayed on a second screen and the proctor or official can make a determination whether the prospective voter is eligible to vote at the polling place.

The manual voters register maintained in most of the under developed countries is causing a lot of electroal malpractices. So, the research work is looking at implementing an micro computer based voters register that will enable legitmate voters to cast their vote without disfranchisement. The system developed will maintan a central database for all registered voters, which will include their pictures and voters id. The implementation of the system will be carried out using visual basic 6.0 and Access database.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
In some countries, including most developed countries, registration is the responsibility of the government, either local or national; and in over 30 countries some form of compulsory voting is required as part of each citizen’s civic duty. Even in many countries where the voting itself is not compulsory, registering one’s place of residence with some government agency is required, which automatically constitutes voter registration for citizens, and in some cases residents, of the required age. In other countries, however, people eligible to vote must “opt in” to be permitted to participate in voting, generally by filling out a specific form registering them to vote. Governments registering people has been shown to be one of the most powerful predictors of high voting turnout levels.
Even in countries where registration is the individual’s responsibility, many reformers, seeking to maximize voter turnout, have pushed for wider availability of the required forms; one such effort in the United States led to the passage of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (“Motor Voter Law”) and similar laws, which required states to offer voter registration at motor vehicle departments (driver’s license offices) as well as disability centers, public schools, and public libraries, and to accept mail-in voter registration.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The election process begings from voters registration. The method adopted during voters registration goes a long way to determine the free and fairness of the election. Often composition of an electorate may also be altered by disenfranchising some types of people, rendering them unable to vote. In some cases this may be done at a legislative level, for example by passing a law banning convicted felons, recent immigrants or members of a particular ethnic or religious group from voting, or by instituting a literacy or other test which members of some groups are more likely to fail. Since this is done by lawmakers, it cannot be election fraud, but may subvert the purposes of democracy. This is especially so if members of the disenfranchised group were particularly likely to vote a certain way.
In some cases voters may be invalidly disenfranchised, which is true electoral fraud. For example a legitimate voter may be ‘accidentally’ removed from the electoral roll, making it difficult or impossible for them to vote. Corrupt election officials may misuse voting regulations such as a literacy test or requirement for proof of identity or address in such a way as to make it difficult or impossible for their targets to cast a vote. If such practices discriminate against a religious or ethnic group, they may so distort the political process that the political order becomes grossly unrepresentative.
So, the problem of disenfrachising electorates is what many under developed countries are facing and the research work is designed to help alliviate all these proplems.

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this project is to develop a database for voter’s registration which will in turn help government to conduct a free and fair election using electronic machines.

1.4 Scope of the Study

THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING REPORTING ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A BUSINESS

(A CASE STUDY OF EMENITE LTD)
ABSTRACT
Effort is made to access the effect of formal accounting reporting on the management of a business financial accounting covers those activities related to the preparation of certain reports which are known as financial statements. These statement report the financial status of a firm at a particular time. The firms activities and resulting profit/losses during the most recent period and the flow of resources occurring within the firm during the same period.
I draw my research from the work of many authors. Such work done have included textbooks in all forms, magazine and Encyclopedias.
Apart from extensive use of literature, other method of research include (a) interview with businessmen. (b) Questionnaires have been designed and distributed to some businessmen (especially at trade fair). The questionnaires have been designed for officers in management cadre in public and private companies, shareholders, staff, partners and owners in sole proprietorship
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of problem 3
1.2 Purpose of the study 3
1.3 Significant of the study 4
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis 5
1.5 Scope of the study 6
1.6 Limitation of the study 7
1.7 Definition of terms. 8

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Review of Related Literature 11
2.1 Accounting as a language of business 11
2.2 Users of accounting information 13
2.3 Characteristics of good information 17
2.4 Management of information 19
2.5 Basic accounting concept 25
2.6 The financial accounting branch 25
2.7 Other accounting branches. 27
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research design and methodology 30
3.1 Sources of data 31
3.2 Sample Size 32
3.3 Method of investigation 32
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data presentation and analysis. 36
4.1 Data presentation and analysis. 36
4.2 Test of hypothesis. 43
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation. 50
5.1 Findings 50
5.2 Conclusion 51
5.3 Recommendation 53
Bibliography 55
Appendix 57

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Financial accounting covers those activities related to the preparation of certain reports which are known as financial statement. These statements reports the financial status of a firm at a particular time the firms activities and resulting profit or losses during the most recent period and the flow of resources occurring within the firm during the same period.
This statement made by A. THOPSON MONTAOMERY gives us an idea on the meaning of financial accounting. However the question arises what are the efforts of these financial account reports in the management of business? The answer poses a problem which the paper will seek to solve. Not all business persons understand the impact of financial accounting information on the management of their business, some manages business intuitively. Other, like traffic defaulters who disobey road signs, disobey the warning of communicated by financial accounting information and end up in a “Business Accident”
There are other sources of information which have impact on the management of Business and the combination of these sources give an information system in the complex nature. As FARM WOOD puts it, “it must not be thought that accounting of any form is the management control system. Instead it is part of it”. But accounting information is the only system through which both mangers and external users get a picture of the organization as a total entity.
Moreover, financial accounting information usually comes in the disguised form by “wearing” the cloak of technicalities. Such technicalities include calculation which need expert knowledge in its interpretation. But when some business because of low financial layout, cannot employ such experts hands, they tend to ignore financial accounting information system which has an effect on the management of any business concern. The problem is: Do all businessmen know this? This is the question that the researcher seeks to answer also.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Is very important for the functioning of any business. The finacial accounting system in most business organization do not potrary fully the principles of accounting systems. The flow of information, the cost of collecting any information and the internal control procedures have some loops holes.
In reality, it would be impossible for the researcher to study all the information system in all or even one of the organization. The study therefore involves a study of some typical financial accounting reporting on the management of a business. The researcher will carry out an empirical study and appraisal of a business financial accounting and see whether there is room for improvement to be made. It will therefore involve a review of the financial accounting and its related procedures.

1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY

PENSION SCHEMES MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA PROBLEMS AN PROSPECT

 

PENSION SCHEMES MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA PROBLEMS AN PROSPECT (A CASE STUDY OD NIGERCEM NKALAGU ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

This research work is aimed at examining pension scheme management in Nigeria with particular reference NigerCemNkalaguEnuguState with the intention of finding out if there are more efficient and effective ways of achieving the objectives of a pension scheme.

This research work is divided into five chapters.  Chapter one- which is the introduction consists of the background of the study statement of the problem, significant of the study purpose of the study, scope of the study.  Limitation and definition of terms.

Chapter two talks about the literature review, which include the view of some authors on problem of pension fund in Nigeria.

Chapter three has to do with methods of data collection, techniques used and administration of the instruments.

Chapter four shows the analysis of data, which have broken down into questionnaire and interview analysis.

Chapter five, which is the last chapter indicates the summary, conclusion on the research and recommendation made by the researcher.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                          ii

Approval page                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                            vii

Table of content                                                                                viii

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                                                1

1.1     Background of the study                                                                   1

1.2     Statement of the problem                                                                  3

1.3     Significance of the study                                                                   4

1.4     Purpose of study                                                                     5

1.5     Research Questions                                                                 6

1.6     Formulation of Hypothesis of the study                                 6

1.7     Limitation of the study                                                            7

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature                                                               8

2.1     Principles of Pensions schemes Management                                    9

2.2     The new public service pension scheme in Nigeria

public parastatals                                                                    11

2.3     Need for pension scheme management                                    14

2.4     The problem and prospects in Nigeria pension

scheme management                                                                16

2.5     Who are supposed to receive this pension?                                      17

Reference                                                                                 19

CHAPTER THREE

Research design and methodology                                                    20

3.1            Research design                                                                       20

3.2            Area of the study                                                                    21

3.3            Population of the study                                                           21

3.4            Sample and sampling procedure                                             22

3.5            Instrument of data collection                                                   24

3.6            Validation of the instruction                                                   24

3.7            Reliability of the instruction                                                    25

3.8            Method of data collection                                                       25

Reference                                                                                 26

CHAPTER FOUR

Data presentation and analysis                                                                  27

4.1            Data presentation and analysis                                                         27

4.2            Testing of Hypothesis                                                             32

4.3            Summary of results                                                                 36

References                                                                               38

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion, Recommendation and conclusion                                  39

5.1     Discussion of result or findings                                                        39

5.2     conclusion                                                                               40

5.3     Implications of the research finding                                        41

5.4     Recommendations                                                                             41

5.5     Suggestions for further research                                             43

References                                                                               44

Bibliography                                                                           45

Appendix                                                                                47

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In order to grow and prosper, organizations must continually maintain and adequate supply of human and material resources.  The survival of any organization therefore depends on the caliber of personnel it attracts and retains.

Workers worldwide usually consider the future prospects in an organization before accepting job offers.  Having served for a specified number of years, staff looks forward to receiving benefits on leaving services.

The type of benefits depends on the culture and economy of the nation.  In Nigeria two broad groups exist, the public service and the organized private sector.   The public service has statutory retirement benefits, but most private organizations have no provision for such benefits.

This benefit is otherwise known us pension.  Pension is a monthly income payment on services rendered to an organization for a specified period of time.  Pension scheme is also a periodic payment granted to an employee for past services rendered, based on contractual legal enforceable agreement, paid by an employer at the agree time of termination of appointment.

Therefore, pension scheme management is a plan toward the payment of pension to the respective people.  This plan may include how to get money, and in which way the pension should be paid to the deserved candidate.  The plan may also involve finding location where the pensions may come and find out when the money for the pension should be paid; the location will have a close contact with the ministry responsible for pension.  The ministry and the pension scheme management office work hand in hand to promote the timely payment of pension.  Another important plan is the choice of commercial bank in which the pension money should be paid into as soon as the federal government releases the said sum.

The pronouncement by the government increasing pensions for existing pensions and introducing benefits calculation based on total emoluments need applauding.  The current maximum gratuity or pension of 300%/80% of final emoluments is a welcome relief.

 

However, experience shows that receiving the benefits may be a mirage.  The usual exercise of lack of finds will make pensions continue to live in penury.  This is highly disappointing, despite the statutory responsibility in the payment.  The efforts of the government in the payment of retirement benefits of employees of Niger Cem Nkalagu, the Nigeria Railway corporation, the Nigeria Ports Authority and the Nigeria Coal corporation are commendable but unfortunately no adequate find was set aside to meet such benefit payment.  The private sector employees on retirement face similar problems as the pension find are often diverted to other project with the resultant effect of mobility to pay benefits when due.

Pensions have a right to enjoy retirement life.  We therefore have to call on the relevant government authorities, the organised private sectors, National consultative Association and Nigeria Labour congress to wake up to the plight of pensions.

1.2            STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The government efforts in the payment of pensions and retirement benefit are commendable but unfortunately the pensioners in Enugu state are full of pathetic stories because of non payment of pensions and gratuities.  There are a lot of complaints from them in the manner in which they are being paid and treated.  Some of the pensioners are being owned form the upwards of 12 months arrears and the officials of government corporation concerned are compounding the problems by not finding a solution to this problem.

The    researchers now want to identify why these pensions are neglected and treated in the way they are being treated.

THE IMPACT OF FRINGE BENEFITS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WORERS IN HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY

THE IMPACT OF FRINGE BENEFITS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WORERS IN HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF ZODIAC HOTEL LTD) ABSTRACT This study examines the impact of fringe benefits on the performance of works in Hotel and catering industry, with a view to establishing its importance to the workers and the industry. This is intended to assert whether or not poor fringe benefit schemes could be an impediment to the development of the sub sector. The study is organized in five chapters each of which deals with some specific aspect of the study. In chapter one provides a framework for the study. It embodies what may be regarded as the proposal for the study and therefore provided the necessary background information, which helped to determine the structure of the study. In chapter two deals with the review of related literature. It provides the theoretical foundation upon which the intricacies of the subject matter were closely knitted. In chapter three deals with the research methodology, which involves a systematic description and analysis of the tools and methods utilized in the research study. It also shows the different statistical methods employed in the research analysis. In chapter four the research data collected in the field through the research tools were presented and analysed. Also the hypothesis that guided data collection were verified. A brief summary of the entire work is presented in the last chapter together with conclusion and recommendation. The findings of the study reveals that fringe benefits is of great importance to workers in the industry and to the industry. And also that poor fringe benefit schemes could serve as an impediment to the development of the sub-sector because of its importance. The study made the recommendation that will help to remedy the situations, to engender a smooth and faster development of the Hotel and catering industry in Nigeria. TABLE OF CONTENT Cover page Title page Approval page Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of content CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study 1.2 Statement of problem 1.3 Purpose of the study 1.4 Objective of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Research hypothesis 1.7 Significance of the study 1.8 Limitation of the study 1.9 Definition of terms Reference CHAPTER TWO 2.0 THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 The nature and scope of fringe benefits 2.2 Factors for effective fringe benefit plan 2.3 Development and administering the benefit programme 2.4 Suggested ways of ensuring appreciation and good return on employee benefit plan 2.5 Why fringe benefits fail to motivate workers 2.6 Reasons for providing fringe benefit 2.7 Problem of installing fringe benefit plans 2.8 Some major types of fringe benefits Reference CHAPTER THREE 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Area of study 3.3 The date and research technique 3.4 Population of the study 3.5 Description of the samples 3.6 Sample size determination 3.7 Sampling procedure 3.8 Statistical technique 3.9 Questionnaire design 3.10 Questionnaire assumptions 3.11 Questionnaire distribution and organisational status of respondents Reference CHAPTER FOUR 3.0 Presentation analysis and interpretation of data 4.1 Demographic characteristic of the respondents 4.2 Findings on employees attraction and retention 4.3 Findings on absenteeism and turnover 4.4 Findings on employee moral 4.5 Testing of hypothesis CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 SUMMARY RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary 5.2 Recommendations 5.3 Conclusion 5.4 Further research needs Bibliography Appendix CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCATION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The problem of manpower in the Hotel and catering industry has continued to attract the ion, professional bodies and other interested parties because of the unique nature of the industry, (Magurn, 1977). This uniqueness lies in the fact that only a few other industries have such close relations between staff and customers. Also only a few other industries in the economy offer so much scope to giving satisfactions to others and for getting satisfaction from work. Yet the problem of inability to attract retains and actuates personnel effectively in the face (shuaibu, 1979, ifedi 1986: 3). Because of the prevailing harsh economic condition of our time, there is need for a good management of the organisational resources so as to ensure greater productivity from each unit of resource input. Of all the management resources available for the purpose of ensuring survival and growth of the organisation, human resources stand out as one of the most basic and critical (Drucker 1955:251). In recognition of this, management usually devote a lot of time and commit other resources towards attracting and retaining high personnel for the organisation and also getting the best out of them. But the Hotel catering industry appears to be lagging behind in this regard especially in development countries like Nigeria (Onyia 1986:3). Our Hotel and catering industry has frequently been criticized in study reports for treating management. A number of workshop or lecture have been organised in Nigeria to find a solution to the problem, which may be acting as a hindrance to the development of the Hotel and catering sub sector. In view of workshop or lecture, it was gathered that among other issues like poor salary schemes, degenerates working conditions, poor fringe benefit scheme prevalent in the industry may also be instrumental to the inability of the industry to actuate personnel effectively and efficiently (Ifedi, 1986:3). Fringe benefit have been identified of the effective ways management may adopt for attracting retaining and actuating personnel especially for motivating them to higher performance (Flippo, 1980:291 Ejiofor, 1984:23). Therefore, for an organisation to meet its aim of survival profit and growth, there is greater need to devote more attention to the formulation of sound and good fringe benefit programme for the organisation and as well maintain a good working condition attracting salary and a congenial work atmosphere. The reason for this is that majority of the workers are mainly concerned with the “bread and butter” issue. Morse in today’s Nigeria with the prevailing economic depression and general hardship one would see that there is not much hope for the salaried workers considering the rising inflation which was put at 8.5% (Abacha’s 1998 budget of transition) with its rise in the cast of living with the rise of unemployment thereby increasing the number of month to be fed and catered for the families of these poor workers. Most wage and salary earners now see their pay package as a sheer mockery of the prevailing market condition. Again, the meaning attached to the fringe benefit programmes existing in many organisation are multifarious and this affects its success in achieving it goals to both the employees and the organisations. Man is a complex being managing man to increase its productivity involves a number of variables one of which is to identify those factors, which can incite him to contribute maximally to organisational growth and development. Once these factors are identified and established, they can be manipulated in a way that will enable them actuate labour effectively and efficiently for improved performance. The need for the development of Hotel and catering industry in Nigeria has been on the increase in the recent times. This arose out of the greater need to diversity the revenue base of the country considering the persisting slide in the price of crude oil at the international oil market (The Guardian, Nov.25 1998). The development of Hotel and catering industry has become pertinent because it provides the fertile ground for the growth and development of tourism industry. Tourism as we know is the fastest growing industry in the world today, considering the tourism potential in the country, it has been accorded a “preferred sector” status in the national economy (Ugwu 1998:42) but tourism cannot grow without a well established Hotel and catering industry (Adeoye 1977:11, Duru 1998:46). Also as Nigeria continue to nurse the ambition of hosting the world cup tournament by the year 2006, the development of Hotel and catering industry in the country will be a boost to this ambition. No country would be allowed to host the world youth soccer championship if they don’t have Hotels and catering industries. On the other hand the Nigeria workers been persistently called upon to improve their performance so as to contribute more to national development (Ekudayo 1988:11. Agbetuyi 1998:25). But one would not expect much from a hungry worker. Therefore studies such as the one undertaken hereby will help to direct the attention of those at them of affairs to those salient factors that would need to be addressed first before demand for better performance can be made for the workers. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Hotel and catering industry if well developed and managed has known to complement the tourism industry there by enhancing revenue generation for the national economy. Meanwhile it has been discovered that the hotel and catering industry in Nigeria has not been bracing up to expectation for some reasons which boarder on the inability to attract, retain and actuate personnel effectively and efficiently. (Adeoye 1977:11, Ifedi 1986:3) Lately, it has been noted that among hotelies who attract, retain and activate personnel play a role here, the bulk of the problems may centre on the dissatisfaction among workers on the existing salary and fringe benefits scheme as well as poor working condition which leads to such vices as lateness to work, absenteeism, and in extreme cases outright resignation. The leads to loss of customer confidence and therefore revenue because the employee might even be around to received the customers as at when due. Also where the employee is not on seat, the reception accorded a customer is usually very cold and sometimes hostile. There has also been some reported theft cases. All these continue to impede on the desire development of the sub-sector. It is therefore the thrust of this research study to investigate an aspect of the problem poor fringe benefit scheme, with the aim of establishing its effects on the performance of workers in the industry. And also making useful, suggestion that will lead to improved fringe benefits administration in the hotel and catering industry as a way of engendering better performance among the workers and consequently enhancing the viability of the sub-sector. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of fringe benefit on the performance of workers in the hotel and catering industry and to established whether poor fringe benefit scheme could be an impediment to better performance by the worker hereby hindering the growth and development of sub-sector.

Car faut detection and control

Car faut detection and control

ABSTRACT

Car fault detection is a complicated process and requires high level of expertise. Any attempt of developing an expert system dealing with car fault detection has to overcome various difficulties. This project describes a proposed knowledge-based system for car fault detection. The project explains the need for an expert system and the some issues on developing knowledge-based systems, the car fault detection process and the difficulties involved in developing the system. The system structure and its components and their functions are described. The system has some rules for different types of faults and causes. It can detect many types of faults. The system has been tested and gave promising results. The programming language employed in this work was visual Basic 6.0.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Expert systems (ES) are a branch of artificial intelligence (AI), and were developed by the AI community in the mid-1960s. An expert system can be defined as “an intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems that are difficult enough to require significant human expertise for their solutions”. We can infer from this definition that expertise can be transferred from a human to a computer and then stored in the computer in a suitable form that users can call upon the computer for specific advice as needed. Then the system can make inferences and arrive at a specific conclusion to give advices and explains, if necessary, the logic behind the advice. ES provide powerful and flexible means for obtaining solutions to a variety of problems that often cannot be dealt with by other, more traditional and orthodox methods. The terms expert system and knowledge-based system (KBS) are often used synonymously. The four main components of KBS are: a knowledge base, an inference engine, a knowledge engineering tool, and a specific user interface. Some of KBS important applications include the following: medical treatment, engineering failure analysis, decision support, knowledge representation, climate forecasting, decision making and learning, and chemical process controlling. Previous work has shown that systems concerned with car fault detection were very limited. Jeff Pepper (1990) has described a proposed expert system for car fault diagnosis called SBDS, the Service Bay Diagnostic System. SBDS is being developed by a joint project team at Ford Motor Company, the Carnegie Group, and Hewlett Packard. SBDS’s knowledge base will contain the expertise of Ford’s top diagnosticians, and it will make their diagnostic skills available to mechanics in every Ford dealership in North America. This system will guide a human technician through the entire service process, from the initial customer interview at the service desk to the diagnosis and repair of the car in the garage.

There are a lot of related expert systems in the literature concerned with diagnostic problems. Daoliang et al. presents a web-based expert system for fish disease diagnosis. The system is now is use by fish farmers in the North China region. Yu Qian et al. proposed an expert system for real-time failure diagnosis of complex chemical processes.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The proposed system divides car failures into three major types:

  1. Start-up state, problems that may occur when a person try to start up the car, for example; engine does not work, some sounds noticed, engine works ones and stops. These problems could be due to one or more failures; will happen, the battery needs to be recharged, the dynamo is dead, or the battery is dead.
  2. Run-stable state, problems that may occur after starting the car, for example; unburned fuel, cycle on-off, blue gas emitted.
  3. Movement-state, problems that may occur while the car is moving; this state also includes problems related to the brake system. Most of movement problems that might occur appears on the car’s tableau the proposed system takes advantage of these facilities and use them to diagnose the problem and to gives advice of the solution to the driver. Some of these problems are: oil pressure, water temperature, voltage, and fuel pointer.

 

1.3       Objectives of the Project

The main objective of the research is to develop Car Failure and Malfunction Diagnosis Assistance System. The aim of the proposed system is to provide quick and precise expert guidance to car fault diagnosis. Additionally, for training purposes, it helps in reducing the knowledge gap between different individuals in car fault diagnosis. The specific objectives of the research are as follows:

  • To investigate the related works on car fault and malfunction diagnosis and Expert System (ES) domains.
  • To design appropriate representation architecture to the proposed Car Failure and Malfunction Diagnosis Assistance System.
  • To develop an ES that supports the implementation of the proposed system’s functionality.
  • To test and validate the system’s performance.

 

1.4       Scope of the Project

The scope of the project covers the following:

  • Repairs of  Minor Faults in cars
  • Detecting the Cause of the problem
  • Suggest how to repair the car